Clockwise from top: Lilla Bommen, Domkyrkan, the Gothenburg Opera, Götaplatsen

Coat of arms
Location of Gothenburg in Europe
Coordinates: 57°42′N 11°58′E / 57.7°N 11.967°E / 57.7; 11.967Coordinates: 57°42′N 11°58′E / 57.7°N 11.967°E / 57.7; 11.967
Country Sweden
Province Västergötland and Bohuslän
County Västra Götaland County
Municipality Gothenburg Municipality,
Härryda Municipality,
Partille Municipality and
Mölndal Municipality
Charter 1621
 - Mayor Anneli Hulthén
 - City 450 km2 (173.7 sq mi)
 - Water 14.5 km2 (5.6 sq mi)  3.2%
 - Urban 203.67 km2 (78.6 sq mi)
 - Metro 3,717 km2 (1,435.1 sq mi)
Population (2011 (urban: 2010))[1][2]
 - City 516,532
 - Density 1,147.8/km2 (2,972.9/sq mi)
 Urban 549,839
 - Urban density 2,699.7/km2 (6,992.1/sq mi)
 Metro 933,560
 - Metro density 251.2/km2 (650.5/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Gothenburg (Swedish: Göteborg; pronounced [jœtəˈbɔrj] ( listen)) ,is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries. Situated on the west coast of Sweden, the city proper has a population of 516,532, with 549,839 in the urban area and total of 933,560 inhabitants in the metropolitan area.[1] Gothenburg is classified as a global city by GaWC, with a ranking of Gamma−.[3]

The City of Gothenburg was founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. It lies by the sea at the mouth of Göta Älv—the river running through the city—and is the largest seaport in the Nordic countries.[4]

Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes both the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Volvo Cars was founded in Gothenburg in 1927.[5] The city is a major centre in Sweden for sports and home to the IFK Göteborg, GAIS and Örgryte IS association football teams and the Frölunda HC ice hockey team.

Gothenburg is served by Gothenburg-Landvetter Airport, located 30 km (18.64 mi) southeast of the city centre. It is the second largest airport in Sweden.



The city was named after the Geats (Swedish: Götar varied: Geatas, Gautar, Goths, Gotar, Gøtar, Götar), the inhabitants of Gothia, now southern Sweden—i.e. "Defence of the Geats".[6] The river on which the city sits is the Göta Älv or Gothia River. Göta borg "Gothia Fortress" is the fort on the Göta River, built to protect the port, which was intended to be Sweden's commercial window to the west.[citation needed]

In Dutch, Scots and English, all languages with a long history of being spoken in this trade and maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg has traditionally been used for the city as in the Gothenburg Film Festival. The French form of the city name is Gothembourg. Gottenburg can also be seen in some older English texts. These traditional forms are now sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Göteborg, for example by the Göteborgsoperan and the Göteborg Ballet. However, Göteborgs universitet, previously designated as Göteborg University in English, changed to the University of Gothenburg in 2008.[7] The municipality of Gothenburg has also reverted to the use of the English name in international contexts.[8] Other old variations in Swedish are Götheborgh, and the more common, Götheborg. One English text written in the late 15th century states the name as "Guthaeborg".[citation needed]


Gothenburg circa 1700 from Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna

In the 16th and 17th century, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg strategically important as the Swedish gateway to the west, lying on the west coast in the narrow area between the territories of Denmark–Norway. After several failed attempts, Gothenburg was successfully founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus (Gustaf II Adolf). The site of the first church built in Gothenburg, subsequently destroyed by Dutch invaders, is marked by a stone near the north end of the Älvsborg Bridge in Färjenäs park. The church was built in 1603 and destroyed in 1611. The city was heavily influenced by the Dutch. Dutch city planners were contracted to build the city as they had the skills needed to build in the marshy areas around the city. The town was designed after Dutch cities like Amsterdam, and therefore the plan of the streets and canals closely resembles that of Jakarta, which was built by the Dutch around the same time.[9] The Dutchmen initially won political power and it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch politician in the city's council died, that the Swedes acquired political power over Gothenburg.[10] During the Dutch period the town followed Dutch town laws and there were propositions to make Dutch the official language in the town. Heavy city walls were built during the 17th century. These city walls were torn down after about 1810, because the development of cannons made such walls less valuable as a defence.[citation needed]

Along with the Dutch, the town also was influenced by Scots who came to settle in Gothenburg. Many became people of high profile. William Chalmers was the son of a Scottish immigrant and donated his fortunes to set up what later became Chalmers University of Technology. In 1841 the Scotsman Alexander Keiller founded the Götaverken shipbuilding company that still exists today. His son James Keiller donated Keiller Park to the city in 1906. The Scottish influence can still be felt in Gothenburg in the present-day with names like Glenn and Morgan, which in the rest of Sweden are rare, are not uncommon in Gothenburg, as is the use of a Scottish sounding "r" in the local dialect.[citation needed]

The Gothenburg coat of arms was based on the lion of the coat of arms of Sweden, symbolically holding a shield with the national emblem, the Three Crowns, to defend against its enemies.

Swedes emigrating to the Americas from Gothenburg

In the Treaty of Roskilde (1658) Denmark-Norway ceded the then Danish province Halland, to the south, and the Norwegian province of Bohus County or Bohuslän to the north, leaving Gothenburg in a less exposed position. Gothenburg was able to grow into an important port and trade centre on the west coast thanks to the fact that it was the only city on the west coast that was granted, together with Marstrand, the rights to trade with merchants from other countries.[10]

In the 18th century, fishing was the most important industry. However, in 1731 the Swedish East India Company was founded, and the city flourished due to its foreign trade with highly profitable commercial expeditions to Asian countries.

The harbour developed into Sweden's main harbour for trade towards the west, and with Swedish emigration to North America increasing, Gothenburg became Sweden's main point of departure. The impact of Gothenburg as a main port of embarkation for Swedish emigrants is reflected by Gothenburg, Nebraska, a small Swedish settlement in the United States.[11]

With the 19th century, Gothenburg evolved into a modern industrial city that continued on into the 20th century. The population increased tenfold in the century, from 13,000 (1800) to 130,000 (1900). In the 20th century major companies that developed included SKF (est. 1907) and Volvo (est. 1926).

In 2001, major protests occurred in the city during the EU summit and the visit by U.S. president George W. Bush.


Gothenburg viewed from space

Gothenburg is located on the west coast, in Southwestern Sweden, approximately half way between the capitals Copenhagen, Denmark, and Oslo, Norway. The location at the mouth of the river Göta älv, which feeds into Kattegatt, an arm of the North Sea, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading city. The archipelago of Gothenburg consists of rough, barren rocks and cliffs, which also is typical for the coast of Bohuslän. Due to the Gulf Stream the city has a mild climate and quite a lot of rain.

The Gothenburg Metropolitan Area (Stor-Göteborg) has 816,931 inhabitants and extends to the municipalities of Ale, Härryda, Kungälv, Lerum, Mölndal, Partille, Stenungsund, Tjörn, Öckerö in Västra Götaland County, and Kungsbacka in Halland County.

Angered, a suburb outside Gothenburg, consists of Hjällbo, Rannebergen, Hammarkullen, Gårdsten and Lövgärdet. It is a Million Programme part of Gothenburg, like Rosengård in Malmö and Botkyrka in Stockholm. Angered has 40,000 inhabitants in total. It lies north from Gothenburg and is isolated from the rest of the city. Bergsjön is another Million Programme suburb north of Gothenburg, Bergsjön has 14,000 inhabitants. Biskopsgården is the biggest multicultural suburb on the island Hisingen, which is a part of Gothenburg separated by the river.

A panorama of central Gothenburg taken from Keillers park, facing south. From left to right: Göta älvbron, Skanskaskrapan, Barken Viking, Göteborgsoperan in front of Göteborgshjulet, Skansen Kronan, Oscar Fredrik Church, Masthugget Church and Älvsborg Bridge


Gothenburg has an oceanic climate according to Köppen climate classification. Despite its high northern latitude, temperatures are quite mild throughout the year and much warmer than places in similar latitude, or even somewhat further south, mainly because of the moderating influence of the warm Gulf Stream.[citation needed] During the summer, daylight extends 17 hours, but lasts only around 7 hours in late December.[citation needed]

Summers are warm and pleasant with average high temperatures of 19 to 20 °C (66 to 68 °F) and lows of 10 to 12 °C (50 to 54 °F), but temperatures of 25–30 °C (77–86 °F) occur on many days during the summer. Winters are cold and windy with temperatures of around -5 to 3 °C (23 to 37 °F), even though it rarely drops below −10 °C (14 °F). Precipitation is regular but generally moderate throughout the year. Snow mainly occurs from December to March. Although snow is not unusual in November and April and can sometimes occur even in October and May.

Typical temperatures and precipitation for each month:[12]

Climate data for Gothenburg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10
Average high °C (°F) 1
Average low °C (°F) -4
Record low °C (°F) -26
Precipitation mm (inches) 62
Avg. precipitation days 15 12 10 12 10 12 14 14 16 15 16 17 163
Sunshine hours 40 71 126 182 241 266 243 220 143 94 58 38 1,722
Source: climatedata[13]

Parks and nature

Gothenburg has many parks and nature reserves ranging in size from tens of metres to hundreds of hectares. There are many more green areas that are maintained on varying.

Selection of parks:


The Haga district in Gothenburg, made almost entirely out of wood

The sea, trade and industrial history of the city is evident in the cultural life of Gothenburg. The greatest attraction in the city is the amusement park Liseberg (see Points of interest). Another fact related to the industrial heritage of the city is that many of the cultural institutions, as well as hospitals and the university, were created thanks to donations from rich merchants and industrialists, for example the Röhsska Museum.

There are many free theatre ensembles in the city, besides institutions like Gothenburg City Theatre, Backa Theatre (youth theatre), and Folkteatern. On 29 December 2004, the Museum of World Culture was opened in Gothenburg, located near Korsvägen.

The Gothenburg Film Festival, held each year, is the largest film festival in Scandinavia.[14] Similarly, the Gothenburg Book Fair, held every year in September, is the largest such event in Scandinavia.

Citing the Financial Crisis the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions has announced that Gothenburg will host the 2010 World Library and Information Congress,[15] previously to be held in Brisbane, Australia.


There are very few houses left from the 17th century when the city was founded, since all but the military and royal houses were built of wood.[16] One example is Skansen Kronan.

The first major architecturally interesting period is the 18th century when the East India Company made Gothenburg an important trade city. Imposing stone houses with a Classical look were erected around the canals. One example from this period is the East India House, which today houses Gothenburg’s City Museum.[citation needed]

Many buildings in the old part of the city were built along canals

In the 19th century, the wealthy bourgeoisie begun to move outside the city walls which had protected the city when the Union of Denmark and Norway was still a threat.[citation needed] The style now was an eclectic, academic, somewhat over decorated style which the middle-class favoured. The working class lived in the overcrowded city district Haga, in wooden houses.

In the 19th century the first important town plan after the founding of city was created, which led to the construction of the main street, Kungsportsavenyn. The perhaps most significant type of houses of the city, Landshövdingehusen, were built in the end of the 19th century; three storey-houses with the first floor in stone and the other two in wood.

A very important period in the architectural history of the city was the early 20th century, when the National Romantic style dominated.[citation needed] Among the many monumental building erected the Masthugget Church can be mentioned.

And in the beginning of the 1920s, when the city celebrated its 300th anniversary, the Götaplatsen square with its Neo-Classical look was built.

After this the predominant style in Gothenburg and rest of Sweden was Functionalism which especially dominated the suburbs like Västra Frölunda and Bergsjön. The prominent Swedish functionalist architect Uno Åhrén served as the city planner here from 1932 through 1943. In the 1950s, the big stadium Ullevi was erected when Sweden hosted the 1958 FIFA World Cup.

The modern architecture of the city is being formed by such architects as Gert Wingårdh who started as a Post-Modernist in the 1980s.[citation needed]

A further remarkable construction is Brudaremossen TV Tower, one of the few partially guyed towers in the world.

Characteristic buildings

The Gothenburg Central Station is in the heart of the city, just next to Nordstan and Drottningtorget. The building has been renovated and expanded numerous times since the grand opening in October 1858. In 2003 a major reconstruction was finished which brought the 19th century building in to the 21st century expanding the capacity for trains, travellers and shopping. Not far from the centralstation is Skanskaskrapan, or more common known as "The Lipstick". It's 86 meters high with 22 floors and coloured in red-white stripes. The skyscraper was designed by Ralph Erskine and built by Skanska in the 1980s as the headquarter for the company.

By the shore of Göta Älv is the Gothenburg Opera. It was completed in 1994. The architect Jan Izikowitz was inspired by the landscape and described his vision as "Something that makes your mind float over the squiggling landscape like the wings of a seagull.

Feskekôrka, or Fiskhallen,[17] is a fishmarket by the Rosenlundskanalen in the heart of Gothenburg. Feskekôrkan was opened on 1 November 1874 and the name comes from being compared with a church.

The Gothenburg Law Court is in the Beaux-Arts.

The Gothenburg Synagogue at Stora Nygatan, near Drottningtorget, was built in 1855 according to the designs of the German architect August Krüger.


Gothenburg has a diverse music community—the Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra is the best known when it comes to classical music. Gothenburg also was the birthplace of the Swedish composer Kurt Atterberg. Bands like The Soundtrack of Our Lives and Ace of Base are well known pop representatives of the city. There is also an active indie scene. For example, the musician Jens Lekman was born in the suburb of Angered and named his 2007 release Night Falls Over Kortedala after another suburb (Kortedala). Other internationally acclaimed indie artists include the electro pop duos Studio, The Knife, Air France, The Tough Alliance, songwriter José González and pop singer El Perro Del Mar as well as genre bending quartet Little Dragon fronted by vocalist Yukimi Nagano. Another son of the city is one of Swedens most popular singers, Håkan Hellström, who often includes many places from the city in his songs.

Gothenburg's own commercially successful At the Gates, In Flames and Dark Tranquillity are credited with pioneering melodic death metal. Another well known band of the Gothenburg scene is The Haunted. Progressive power metal band Evergrey also originate from the city as do power metal bands HammerFall and Dream Evil.

The Metaltown Festival is a two day festival featuring heavy metal music bands, held in Gothenburg. It has been arranged annually since 2004, taking place at the Frihamnen venue. The most recent festival in June 2010, included bands such as Coheed and Cambria, Dark Tranquility, Rammstein, Amon Amarth, and In Flames.

Food and drink

The city has a number of star chefs – over the past decade, seven of the Swedish Chef of the Year Awards have been won by Gothenburgers.[18] A popular place to buy fish ingredients is the Feskekôrka ("Fish Church"); an indoor fish market which got its name from the building's resemblance to a Gothic church. Five Gothenburg restaurants have a star in the 2008 Michelin Guide: 28 +, Basement, Fond, Kock & Vin, Fiskekrogen and Sjömagasinet.[19]


With around 20,000 sailboats and yachts scattered about the city, sailing is a popular sports activity in the region, particularly because of the nearby Gothenburg Archipelago.
Ullevi Stadium, the largest outdoor sports arena in Scandinavia

As in all of Sweden, a variety of sports are followed, including but not limited to football, ice hockey, basketball, team handball, and figure skating. There is a varied amateur and professional sports clubs scene. Gothenburg is the birthplace of football in Sweden as the first football match in Sweden was played there in 1892. The city's three major clubs, IFK Göteborg, Örgryte IS and GAIS share a total of 34 Swedish Championships between them. IFK has also won the UEFA Cup twice. Other notable clubs include BK Häcken (football), Pixbo Wallenstam IBK (floorball), multiple national team handball champion Redbergslids IK, and three time national ice hockey champion Frölunda HC, Gothenburg has also a professional basketball team Gothia Basket. The bandy department of GAIS, GAIS Bandy, played qualification matches to the highest division Elitserien last season.

The city's most notable sports venues are Scandinavium (ice hockey), and Nya Ullevi (multisport) and the new-built Gamla Ullevi[20] (football).

Gothenburg has hosted a number of international sporting events including the 1958 FIFA World Cup, the 1983 European Cup Winners' Cup Final, an NFL preseason game on 14 August 1988 between the Chicago Bears and the Minnesota Vikings, the 1992 European Football Championship, the 1993 and the 2002 World Men's Handball Championship, the 1995 World Championships in Athletics, the 1997 World Championships in Swimming (Short track), the 2002 Ice Hockey World Championships, the 2004 UEFA Cup final, the 2006 European Championships in Athletics, and the 2008 World Figure Skating Championships. Annual events held in the city are the Gothia Cup and the Göteborgsvarvet.

Gothenburg will host the XIII FINA World Masters Championships 2010.[21] Diving, swimming, synchronized swimming and open water competitions took place from 28 July to 7 August. The water polo events will be held on the neighboring city of Borås.


The SKF factory in Gothenburg.

Due to the Gothenburg's advantageous location in the centre of Scandinavia, trade and shipping have always played a major role in the city's economic history, and they continue to do so. Gothenburg port has come to be the largest harbour in Scandinavia.[4]

Apart from trade, the second pillar of Gothenburg has traditionally been manufacturing, and industry which significantly contributes to the city's wealth. Major companies operating plants in the area include SKF, Volvo, and Ericsson. Volvo Cars is the largest employer in Gothenburg, not including jobs in supply companies. The blue collar industries which have dominated the city for long are still important factors in the city's economy, but they are being gradually replaced by high tech industries.

Banking and finance are also important trades as well as the event and tourist industry.[4]

Gothenburg is the terminus of the Valdemar-Göteborg gas pipeline, which brings natural gas from the North Sea fields to Sweden, through Denmark.[22]

Historically, Gothenburg was home base of the 18th century Swedish East India Company and were from the founding of the city until the late 1970s a world leading city in ship building with shipyards as Eriksbergs Mekaniska Verkstads AB, Götaverken, Arendalsvarvet and Lindholmens varv.



Gothenburg, like most Swedish metropolitan areas, has a large immigrant population.[23] According to Statistics Sweden in 2005, there are 108,480 immigrants resident in Gothenburg,[24] which is about 20% of the population, out of which 10% are from Finland and 9% from Iran.


The University of Gothenburg is one of the largest universities in the Nordic countries.

Gothenburg has two universities, both of which started off as colleges founded by private donations in the 19th century. The University of Gothenburg has approximately 25,000 students and is one of the largest universities in Scandinavia[25] and one of the most versatile in Sweden. Chalmers University of Technology is a well known university located in Johanneberg 2 km south of the inner city, lately also established at Lindholmen in Norra Älvstranden, Hisingen.[26]

There are also four folk high schools (Arbetarrörelsens Folkhögskola i Göteborg, Folkhögskolan i Angered, Göteborgs Folkhögskola, and Kvinnofolkhögskolan).

Gothenburg has some 25–30 high schools. Four of the more notable schools are Schillerska gymnasiet, Donnergymnasiet, Hvitfeldtska gymnasiet and Göteborgs Högre Samskola. There are also some high-schools connected to big Swedish companies. One is SKF Technical high-school (belonging to SKF) and Gothenburg's technical high-school (belonging to Volvo).

Points of interest

Liseberg, the largest amusement park in Scandinavia.

Gothenburg is a popular destination for tourists on the Swedish west-coast, and offers a number of cultural and architectural highlights.

The main boulevard is called Kungsportsavenyn (commonly known as Avenyn, "The Avenue"). It is about one kilometre long and starts at Götaplatsen — which is the location of the Gothenburg Museum of Art, the city's theatre, the city library as well as the concert hall— and stretches out all the way to Kungsportsplatsen in the old city centre of Gothenburg, crossing a canal and a small park. The Avenyn was created in the 1860s and 1870s as a result of an international architecture contest, and is the product of a period of extensive town planning and re-modelling.[27] Avenyn has Gothenburg's highest concentration of pubs and clubs.

Scandinavia's largest shopping centre, Nordstan, is located in central Gothenburg. Gothenburg's Haga district is known for its picturesque wooden houses and its cafés.

The Gothenburg Opera house was inaugurated in 1994, and is an architectural landmark situated right next to the Göta älv river. Museums include the Gothenburg Museum of Art, Göteborgs Konsthall, Röhss Museum, and several museums of sea and navigation history, natural history, the sciences, and East India. The Museum of World Culture[28] was inaugurated in 2004. Aeroseum, close to the Göteborg City Airport, is a unique aircraft museum in a former military under ground Air Force base.

The Gothenburg Botanical Garden[29] is considered to be one of the most important botanical gardens in Europe with three stars in the French Guide Rouge. Next to the botanical garden is Gothenburg's largest park, Slottsskogen, where the Natural History Museum (Naturhistoriska Museet) is located. The park is also home to the city's oldest observatorie and a zoo.

The amusement park Liseberg is located in the central part of the city. Liseberg is Scandinavia's largest amusement park by number of rides,[30] and the most popular attraction in Sweden by number of visitors per year (more than 3 millions). Located near Liseberg is a science discovery centre named Universeum.

One of Gothenburg's most popular natural tourist attractions is the Southern Gothenburg Archipelago, which is a set of many picturesque islands that can be reached by ferry boat. Within the archipelago Älvsborg Fortress, Vinga and Styrsö islands are popular places to visit.

The Gunnebo House can be seen South of Gothenburg, in Mölndal. It was built in a neoclassical architecture towards the end of the 18th century.



Map showing the locations of airports around Gothenburg

There are two international airports around Gothenburg:


Gothenburg harbour seen from the Älvsborg bridge. Seen to the left is the ship HSS Stena Carisma and to the right MS Stena Scandinavica.
Gothenburg's popular tram system covers most of the city which makes it the most extensive in Scandinavia. Here shown a vintage tourist tram at Kungsportsavenyn.

The Swedish company Stena Line operates between Gothenburg/Frederikshavn in Denmark and Gothenburg/Kiel in Germany.

The "England ferry" (Englandsfärjan) to Newcastle over Kristiansand (run by the Danish company DFDS Seaways) ceased at the end of October 2006,[32] after being a Gothenburg institution since the 19th century. DFDS Seaways' sister company, DFDS Tor Line, continues to run scheduled freight ships between Gothenburg and several English ports, and these have limited capacity for passengers and their private vehicles. There are also freight ships to North America and East Asia.

Rail and intercity bus

Other major transportation hubs are Centralstationen (Gothenburg Central Station) and the Nils Ericson Terminal with trains and buses to various destinations in Sweden, as well as connections to Oslo and Copenhagen (via Malmö).


Gothenburg is a logistic centre, with transports by train and truck from Sweden and Norway to Gothenburg harbour which is by far the largest port in Scandinavia with a cargo turnover of 36.9 million tonnes a year (2004).[33]

Public transport

With over 80 km of double track the Gothenburg tram is the largest tram/light rail network in Scandinavia. The bus network, however, is almost as important. There are also some boat and ferry services. The lack of a subway is due to the soft ground on which Gothenburg is situated. Tunneling is very expensive in such conditions. There is also a commuter rail in Gothenburg servicing nearby some nearby cities and towns.

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Gothenburg is twinned with:

See also

Sweden portal

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c "Tätorternas landareal, folkmängd och invånare per km2 2005 och 2010" (in Swedish) (xls). Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 10 May 2009. 
  2. ^ Statistics Sweden: Folkmängd i riket, län och kommuner 30 juni 2011 och befolkningsförändringar 1 januari - 30 juni 2011
  3. ^ GaWC - The World According to GaWC 2010
  4. ^ a b c Swedish National Encyclopedia (password needed)
  5. ^ Volvo group history: Volvo's founders
  6. ^ Hellquist, E. Svensk etymologisk ordbok. Pamp, B. Ortnamnen i Sverige. Svenska ortnamnsarkiv. AWE/Gebers serie om ortnamnen i våra landskap.
  7. ^ University of Gothenburg – the University's new English name (Press release). University of Gothenburg. 4 February 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  8. ^ "City of Gothenburg". Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  9. ^ Kastrup, Allan. (1975). The Swedish heritage in America: the Swedish element in America and American-Swedish relations in their historical perspective. Swedish Council of America.
  10. ^ a b Henriksson, Dick and Älveby, Rustan. (1994). Vårt Levebröd – Göteborgregionens näringsliv Igår, I dag och I morgon. Publisher: Akademiförlaget. Page 5. ISBN 91-24-16635-9
  11. ^ Gothenburg Nebraska. (15 September 2010). LASR. Retrieved 15 September 2010
  12. ^ Goteborg, 18 July 2006
  13. ^ "Climate Stavanger". Climatedata. 
  14. ^ "Göteborg International Film Festival 2008: Göteborg International Film Festival". Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2009. 
  15. ^ Göteborg, Sweden to host the 2010 IFLA World Library and Information Congress, IFLA 8 July 2009
  16. ^ Nationalencyklopedin (NE), The Swedish National Encyclopedia (Most of this section is based on NE)
  17. ^ 100 utmärkta hus i Göteborg, Manne Ekman & Margareta Rydbo, Göteborgs Stadsmuseum, Alfa Print AB, Sundbyberg 2007 ISBN 978-91-85488-78-0 s.78
  18. ^ "Sweden Unzipped". New York Times 23 September 2007
  19. ^ Information from the tourist company Göteborg & Co, website
  20. ^ Gamla Ullevi, Higabgruppen, website (Swedish)
  21. ^ XIII FINA World Masters Championships 2010 website
  22. ^ "Norway, Sweden and Denmark Pipelines map – Crude Oil (petroleum) pipelines – Natural Gas pipelines – Products pipelines". Retrieved 30 July 2011. 
  23. ^ Statistics Sweden
  24. ^ Exceldocument from the townships homepage[dead link]
  25. ^ "About the university". University of Gothenburg. Retrieved 8 July 2009. 
  26. ^ Premises and campus Chalmers University of Technology
  27. ^ Guide till Sveriges arkitektur, red. Waern, Caldenby, Arkitektur förlag
  28. ^ "Världskulturmuseet – Start". Retrieved 8 July 2009. 
  29. ^ Göteborg Botanical Garden
  30. ^ Best Amusement Parks 2005 – Liseberg, Gothenburg Sweden. Forbes (2005)
  31. ^ sv:Lista över flygplatser i Sverige
  32. ^ "DFDS scraps Newcastle-Gothenburg line", The Local, 7 September 2006: "Danish shipping company DFDS Seaways is to scrap the only passenger ferry route between Sweden and Britain, with the axing of the Gothenburg-Newcastle route at the end of October."
  33. ^ Statistics from the homepage of the Port of Göteborg
  34. ^ "Partner Cities of Lyon and Greater Lyon". Mairie de Lyon. 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 

External links

Gothenburg is one of 133 places with the historical city status in Sweden.

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