Arad, Romania

Arad
—  Municipality  —
Arad at dusk

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Arad
Location of Arad, Romania
Coordinates: 46°10′N 21°19′E / 46.167°N 21.317°E / 46.167; 21.317Coordinates: 46°10′N 21°19′E / 46.167°N 21.317°E / 46.167; 21.317
Country  Romania
County Arad County
Status Municipality
Government
 - Mayor Gheorghe Falcă (Democratic Liberal Party)
Area
 - Total 46.18 km2 (17.8 sq mi)
Population (est. July 1, 2006)
 - Total 172,824
 - Density 3,638/km2 (9,422.4/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Website http://www.primariaarad.ro
Strada Unirii (Union Street)

Arad (Romanian pronunciation: [aˈrad]; Hungarian: Arad; Serbian: Арад/Arad) is the capital city of Arad County, in western Romania, in the Crişana region, on the river Mureş.

An important industrial center and transportation hub, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary, a training school for teachers and a music conservatory. The city has a population of approximately 172,000, making it the 13th largest city in Romania. Arad is the third largest city in the western part of the country, behind Timişoara and Oradea.

Contents

History

Arad was first mentioned in documents in the 11th century. The Mongol invasion of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1241 showed the importance of the fortifications on this place, to which were added in the second half of the 13th century more stone fortresses at Şoimoş (Solymos), Şiria (Világos), and Dezna (Dézna). The Ottoman Empire conquered the region from Hungary in 1551 and kept it until the Peace of Karlowitz of 1699. Arad became an eyalet center, which comprised the sanjaks of Arad, Lugoj, Kacaş, Beşlek and Yanova from 1660 till 1697, when it was captured by Austrians during Ottoman-Habsburg wars (1683–1699). After 1699, the city was ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy. According to 1720 data, the population of the city was composed of 177 Romanian families, 162 Serbian, and 35 Hungarian.[1]

The first Jewish person allowed to settle inside the city was Isac Elias in 1742. Eventually the Jewish population of Arad numbered over 10,000 people, more than 10% of the population, before the Second World War.[2]

The new fortress was built between 1763 and 1783. Although it was small, it proved formidable having played a great role in the Hungarian struggle for independence in 1849. The city possesses a museum containing relics of this war of independence.

Bravely defended by the Austrian general Berger until the end of July 1849, it was captured by the Hungarian rebels, who made it their headquarters during the latter part of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. It was from Arad that Lajos Kossuth issued his famous proclamation (11 August 1849), and where he handed over the supreme military and civil power to Artúr Görgey.

The fortress was recaptured shortly after the surrender at Világos (now Şiria, Romania), with the surrender of general Artúr Görgey to the Russians. It became an ammunition depot. Thirteen rebel generals were executed there on 6 October 1849, by order of the Austrian general Julius Jacob von Haynau. These men are known collectively as the 13 Martyrs of Arad, and since then Arad is considered the "Hungarian Golgotha". One of the public squares contains a martyrs' monument, erected in their memory. It consists of a colossal figure of Hungary, with four allegorical groups, and medallions of the executed generals.

Arad enjoyed great economic development in the 19th century. In 1834 it was declared a "free royal town" by Emperor Francis I of Austria.

Aradu Nou / Neu Arad / Újarad ("New Arad"), situated on the opposite bank of the Mureş river, is a neighborhood of Arad, to which it is connected by the Trajan bridge. It was founded during the Turkish wars of the 17th century. The works erected by the Turks for the capture of the fortress of Arad formed the nucleus of the new settlement.

In 1910, the town had 63,166 inhabitants: 46,085 (73%) Hungarians, 10,279 (16.2%) Romanians, 4,365 (7%) Germans.[3]

Chronology

Population

Historical population of Arad
Year Population
1900 53,903[4]
1912 census increase 63,166
1930 census increase 77,181
1948 census increase 87,291
1956 census increase 106,460
1966 census increase 126,000
1977 census increase 171,193
1992 census increase 190,114
2002 census decrease 172,827
2009 estimate decrease 166,003

According to the 2002 census, the municipality of Arad was home to 172,827 inhabitants. The ethnic breakdown of the city was as follows: 142,968 Romanians (82.72%); 22,492 Hungarians (13.01%); 3,004 Roma (1.74%); 2,247 Germans (1.31%); and 2,116 of other nationalities (1.22%). The population had fallen slightly by 2006.[5]

The principal religious groups were the Romanian Orthodox (72.7%), Roman Catholic (12.1%), Baptist (4.5%), Pentecostal (4.4%), Reformed (3.1%), and Greek-Catholic (1.1%) churches.

Climate

Arad has a humid continental climate with cold and snowy winters and hot summers.

Climate data for Arad, Romania
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18
(64)
18
(64)
26
(79)
28
(82)
32
(90)
34
(93)
38
(100)
37
(99)
36
(97)
30
(86)
21
(70)
17
(63)
38
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 1
(34)
4
(39)
11
(52)
16
(61)
21
(70)
23
(73)
26
(79)
26
(79)
23
(73)
16
(61)
8
(46)
3
(37)
15
(59)
Daily mean °C (°F) -1
(30)
1
(34)
6
(43)
10
(50)
16
(61)
18
(64)
20
(68)
20
(68)
17
(63)
11
(52)
5
(41)
0
(32)
23
(73)
Average low °C (°F) -3
(27)
-2
(28)
1
(34)
5
(41)
10
(50)
13
(55)
14
(57)
14
(57)
11
(52)
6
(43)
1
(34)
-2
(28)
6
(43)
Record low °C (°F) -25
(-13)
-21
(-6)
-15
(5)
-7
(19)
-1
(30)
2
(36)
5
(41)
4
(39)
0
(32)
-11
(12)
-12
(10)
-17
(1)
-25
(-13)
Precipitation mm (inches) 22.8
(0.898)
18.9
(0.744)
22.7
(0.894)
41.5
(1.634)
39.4
(1.551)
63.2
(2.488)
44.9
(1.768)
39.7
(1.563)
40.0
(1.575)
28.2
(1.11)
29.6
(1.165)
31.3
(1.232)
422.2
(16.622)
Avg. rainy days 11 11 11 10 12 11 9 8 7 9 12 12 123
Sunshine hours 62 84 124 150 248 270 279 279 210 155 60 62 1,983
Source: Weatherbase[6] MSN Weather[6] BBC Weather [6]

Economy

With a rich industrial and commercial tradition, Arad is one of the most prosperous towns in Romania. Thanks to numerous investments in industry and commerce, Arad has a booming economy.

The main industries are: freight and passenger railway cars, clothing and textiles, food processing, furniture and household accessories, equipment for the car industry, electric components, instrumentation and shoes.

Transport

Arad is the most important trans-European road and rail transportation junction point in western Romania, included in the 4th Pan-European Corridor linking Western Europe to South-Eastern European and Middle Eastern countries. The city has an extensive light rail network and a few bus lines. Arad International Airport (IATA: ARW, ICAO: LRAR), with a cargo terminal, is situated 4 km from downtown Arad.

Employees by occupation

Neighborhoods

  1. Aradul Nou
  2. Centru
  3. Aurel Vlaicu
  4. Micalaca
  5. Grădişte
  6. Alfa
  7. Bujac
  8. Confectii
  9. Functionarilor
  10. Gai
  11. Parneava
  12. Sânnicolaul Mic
  13. Colonia
  14. Subcetate

Tourist attractions

Architectural monuments

Classic Theatre "Ioan Slavici"
"Ioan Slavici" Theatre at Nighttime

Historic buildings

Monuments

"The Red Church", the Lutheran Church in Arad

Religious tourism

Catholic cathedral St. Anthony of Padua

The Bodrog Monastery built in 1111

Recreational tourism

Culture and education

Schools

Arad has two universities, the private Vasile Goldiş University of the West, founded in 1990, and the public Aurel Vlaicu University, founded in 1991. Also the "Spiru Haret" long-distance studies University has a branch in Arad.

There are about two dozen high schools, some of the more famous being the "Moise Nicoară" College, the Pedagogical High School "Dimitrie Tichindeal", "Elena Ghiba-Birta" College, the Economics College, the Technical High School for Constructions and Environmental Protection, and the Vasile Goldiş theoretical lyceum. High schools in minority languages include the Hungarian "Csiky Gergely" school group and the German Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn theoretical lyceum.

Cultural life

Museums and exhibitions

Arad town hall square

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Arad is twinned with:

Partner cities

Sports

The UTA Arad (formerly ITA) football team was founded in 1946 and has won six Romanian championships and two Romanian Cups. As of the 2009-10 season, it plays in the second national league, Liga II. The team is the most successful team from Romania that is not based in Bucharest, after Steaua and Dinamo; it is the 3rd more successful modern team in the country and 4th counting Venus Bucharest, a team from the Inter-War period. The team's most notable performance on the international stage is the elimination from the European Champions Cup of Ernst Happel's Feyenoord in the 1970-71 season. when the Dutch team were defending European champions and later won the Intercontinental Cup.

In basketball, the women's ICIM and the men's West Petrom teams have national prominence, their record including some recent national championship wins (ICIM in 1998 through 2001, West Petrom in 2001 and 2002). In men's water polo, Astra Arad also plays in the first division. The men's rugby team Contor Group Arad plays in the National Rugby League, reaching the playoff final in 2006.

World Champion and Olympic medalist in gymnastics, Emilia Eberle was born in Arad.

References

Notes

  1. ^ Dr Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjiga 2, Novi Sad, 1990, page 326.
  2. ^ http://www.aradnet.ro/arad/sinagoga_din_arad___misterul_din_spatele_usilor___stiri_arad_234_344952.html
  3. ^ Atlas and Gazetteer of Historic Hungary 1914, Talma Kiadó
  4. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
  5. ^ "Populaţia judeţelor, municipiilor şi oraşelor, la 1 iulie 2006" (in Romanian). INSSE. 2007. http://www.insse.ro/cms/files/pdf/en/cp2.pdf=true. Retrieved February 6, 2010. [dead link]
  6. ^ a b c "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Arad, Romania". http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=251&refer=&units=metric&cityname=Arad-Romania. 

External links

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